# Relativity: Mass & Time as Relational Variables to the constant C the Speed of Light

The components of mass, time progression, the velocity of light will be examined and how they are related to each other, this universe and other parallel planes of existence.

Current theories of Relativity conclude, there is a relationship of mass, time and the velocity of light and that they are factors interdependent upon each other. In this paper we will offer new concepts to the science of physics and expand on the relational model of time vs. C and hypothesis of dark matter.

If we consider an object, where its molecular structure is set a specific quantity of mass and temperature, mankind references as a limit of T (temperature is a scale set by cultures on Earth that measures the rate of heat subatomic particles emitted by a specific quantity mass or area of general matter) approaches absolute zero. This done to take the variable of T out of the equation only.  The velocity of this object or constant, now will be referenced as mass X in relation to any nearby three-dimensional point in a 3rd density universe. All forces acting upon the area of the universe for test purposes is set to equilibrium, null. Where no force has been introduced to accelerate this mass X in relation to the static points of matter surrounding it or its reference base. Consensus will agree, the passage of time is perceived as normal to what is presently experienced on Earth.

Now if the object or mass X is accelerated towards the velocity of light, established theories state, the object will increase in mass until no amount of energy can push it past the velocity of or limit C. Secondary, the passage of time for this object and its interaction with the particle movement of the ambient universe or 3rd density  slows where the passage of time approaches the limit of mankind's zero.

In order for the theory to work, as energy is introduced into the equation it is converted to mass, is this what you observe in your particle accelerators? No. The transmutation of energy into matter by the process of accelerating the particles towards the limit of C has not been observed in a lab.

Consensus states the Big Bang was the initial source of energy related to the creation of stellar mass. This is a constant and since no new energy can be introduced, we have a paradox. Scientists state the universe is expanding at increasing velocities. If the conclusion is that the mass of the object increases due to speed of light, which is a constant. Then it is the energy that is converted to mass. So as the mass of the universe was created, does not gravity related to the newly created and expanding masses scattered about the new universe now attract thus slowing the expansion. Side effect, gravitational compression of stellar matter and initiation of massive black holes at points of congestion. Is this what scientists observe in space? No.

Relativity, a concept associated to Einstein, has been interpreted to theorize that as an object approaches the velocity of light, its mass also increases. As a resultant, the energy injected into the total equation needed to accelerate the host mass to the speed of light approaches a limit or equilibrium, thus the accepted maximum velocity of light. Two major problems arise as we equate a particle or mass as increases at or near the velocity of light and the passage of time. So lets examine some of mankind’s fundamental rules in order to validate or adjust Einstein's Theory of Relativity.

The first problem that arises is expansion or creation of mass. Does the mass of a particle or what is considered an electron increase in mass so that its acceleration is limited to the velocity of light as it flows through a wire?  How can the scientific world provide theories based on relativity, but certain aspects of mass acceleration do not mirror accepted views, such as matter cannot be created or destroyed? We have  a direct contradiction of several fundamental rules of physics.

The second problem occurs as a mass' velocity approaches the limit, C as measured by mankind as a maximum. Current consensus has the concept of time slowing as a mass traveling through space accelerates towards the velocity of light. What is the threshold of change where the passage of time changes vs. velocity is concerned? Will a new set parameters govern the affected mass as if it is encapsulated from the rest of the universe? The answer is no; for this universe, there is only 1 timeline and no shortcuts related  to the movement of a mass towards velocity C. Before a new explanation is presented lets review current view of Time Dilation related to the Theory of Relativity.

So lets examine a random website that tries to explain Time Dilation and the different timelines:

This is a copy of the following website: http://casa.colorado.edu/~ajsh/sr/time.html

To separate the author of the website quoted from Grant the font color will be RED

This website does not endorse the Grant Chronicles and is use only to present one of mankind's present accepted views of time dilation.

Vermilion and Cerulean construct identical clocks, consisting of a light beam which bounces off a mirror. Tick, the light beam hits the mirror, tock, the beam returns to its owner. As long as Vermilion and Cerulean remain at rest to each other, both agree that each other’s clock tick-tocks at the same rate as their own.

Grant's Explanation:
Diagram [shown only on host website]: shows a red (Vermilion) and blue ( Cerulean) dot with green lines representing mirrors directly vertical above the dots with a depiction of a particle representing light both moving or bouncing between the mirrors and the point of introduction of Vermilion and Cerulean for the light beam in unison. Thus demonstrating in this case the time line is the same for both light particles.

But, now suppose Cerulean goes off a velocity v relative Vermilion, in a direction perpendicular to the direction of mirror. As far as Cerulean is concerned, his clock tick-tocks at the same rate as before, a tick at the mirror, a tock on return. But, from Vermilion’s point of view, although the distance between Cerulean and his mirror at any instant remains the same as before, has further to go. And since the speed of light is constant, Vermilion thinks it takes longer for Cerulean’s clock to tick-tock than her own. Thus Vermilion thinks Cerulean’s clock runs slow relative to her own.

Grant's Explanation:
Diagram 2: Shows a red and blue dot each representing the relative positions of Vermilion and Cerulean, which are superimposed on top of each thus sharing the same point in time and space. The mirrors also share the same point in time and space at T = 0, then motion is initiated, where a mirror and the blue dot associated with Cerulean attains a velocity v. The particles of light are emitted from the point of origination of both dots. The path of one conforms to the original diagram, the other follows a path 60 degrees away from the perpendicular lateral path of Cerulean. It bounces off the mirror and returns to Cerulean at a point equal to the length of the path traveled to the point of intersection of the moving mirror and the reflective path back to Cerulean.

Lorentz Gamma Factor

How much slower does Cerulean’s clock run, from Vermilion’s point of view? In special relativity the factor is called y, (the standard symbol for lambda is not available an initialized y will take its place) the Lorentz gamma factor, introduced by the Dutch physicist Hendrik A. Lorentz in 1904, one year before Einstein proposed his theory of special relativity. Lets see how the Lorentz gamma factor y is related to Cerulean’s velocity v. In units where the speed of light is one, c = 1, Vermilion’s mirror is one tick away from her, and from her point of view the vertical distance between Cerulean and his mirror is the same, one tick. But Vermilion thinks that the distance traveled by the light beam Cerulean and his mirror is y ticks. Cerulean is moving at speed v, so Vermilion thinks he moves a distance of y v ticks during the y ticks of time taken by the light to travel from Cerulean to his mirror. Thus, from Vermilion’s point of view, the vertical line from Cerulean to his mirror, Cerulean’s light beam, and Cerulean’s path form a triangle with sides 1, y, yv, as illustrated. Pythogoras’ theorem implies that

12 + (yv)2 = y2

From which it follows that the Lorentz gamma factor y is related to Cerulean’s velocity v by

y = 1/ (1 - v2 ) ½

which is Lorentz’s Famous formula.

Vermilion thinks Cerulean's clock runs slow. But of course from Cerulean's perspective it is Vermilion who is moving, and Vermilion whose clock runs slow? How can both think the other's clock runs slow? Paradox!

The resolution of the paradox, as usual in special relativity, involves simultaneity, and as usual it helps to draw a space-time diagram, such as the one from the Centre of the Lightcone page.

While Vermilion thinks events happen simultaneously along horizontal planes in this diagram, Cerulean thinks events occur simultaneously along skewed planes. Thus Vermilion thinks her clock ticks when Cerulean is at point O, before Cerulean's clock ticks. Conversely, Cerulean thinks his clock ticks when Vermilion is at point O, before Vermilion's clock ticks.

Where do the two light beams in Vermilion's and Cerulean's clocks go in this space time diagram? Here

In this example of time dilation, Lorentz' formula does not consider all aspects of particle movement. So lets reexamine what has been presented to us in this version of time dilation.

What was not considered was all aspects and the frame of reference of the photon moving at v of Cerulean from the point of origin. How would a subatomic particle of light (photon) from a superimposed point shared by Vermilion and Cerulean be emitted simultaneously and then follow a set parameters of emission from a static point with the adjustment for v exhibited only in the angle of particle ejection? At T (time) = 0 the velocity at the point origin of Cerulean is v. The light particle has v 90 degrees to its path of emission just like the mirror keeping pace towards the point of reflection. Using vectors we can see that the particle while in motion 90 degrees away from its directional path due to the v added to the light particle from Cerulean still maintains a relative speed towards the mirror of C. If you was an observer moving along with the mirror, from what direction would the light be emitted? Lorentz makes the mistake of assuming the path is from a static origin. But at the point of origin, the particle is moving at v away from the static point of reference. Wouldn't this be confirmed visually as the observed light source originating from the point Vermilion moving in a parallel path and relative speed to the mirror, since distance between the 2 points does not alter.

So lets consider a relative frame, where the emission point and destination move in unison and it is this constant distant between these points that is maintained. If the relative distance between that which is the light source and the mirror maintains a relative position, does a particle of light  change its speed? No. What mankind used was the apparent velocity of the particle between the static origin point of Vermilion and its final point of reflection with the mirror. The only path is that really traveled as the photon relatively, is a  maintained speed of C in the direction of the mirror as both the emitter and the point of reflection maintained a static reference frame of points in three dimensions, due to the apparent v provided by Vermilion. The apparent path of light seems to take is non moot.

Mankind assumed the light subatomic particles seems to follow the path where it seems the velocity of light is exceeded, but in order to compensate the passage of time was slowed so C would not surpass its speed. The speed of light was never exceeded, but its apparent velocity due to lateral speed coupled with its true path seems to exceed the C. Its true speed does not exceed C point to point in the direction of emission to the mirror and back, but its lateral movement still remains part of the total velocity equation, thus the error. In conclusion the speed of light in this 3rd density universe is a constant, but its apparent velocity due movement of the emission platform will seem greater than its true path directional point to point path. Is there a time dilation? No, just overlooking the process, if you apply a grid plane that encompasses the mirror and Cerulean and the static emission of the particle from Vermilion, a new prospective emerges. As the grid moves at v away the origin point, the relative speed and time of the particle between two points Cerulean and the mirror within the grid is the same no matter what direction or velocity the entire grid in unison is moving.

Particle movement and matter cannot exist in a universe where a different timeline exists for various segments in the universe determined by speed.  Mankind assumes as the mass of concern approaches the speed of light, the mass increases and there is a timeline divergence, thus separating mass from normal time and our space. The passage of a ray of light offers us a glimpse to the past, but according to the rules of physics, the movement of time approaches zero. How can this be achieved?  When a particle is accelerated in a cyclotron does it wink in and out of existence when they are accelerated to the velocity of light due to time differentials? The result of the experiment would be recorded well after its start if timeline for the particle to the observer decreased. With the rebuttal of the Lorentz we can see that time does not vary within the universal plane as a function related to the speed of C. The speed of any particle within this universal plane or density is not determine by a relationship of energy injected that is countered by an increase of mass to provide the ultimate barrier "C".

Question: Consider, how does the Earth keep its atmosphere in the vacuum of space held only by a weak force, gravity? There is another factor to consider, space is not as empty as most scientist would assume. First, lets look at the speed of light. The principle of vibration of the atomic structure as related to planes of existence has other properties.

Our universe has the lowest vibration on the atomic level, thus particle crowding, it is this that impedes or limits the velocity of any subatomic particle no matter form it takes. It is the atomic vibrational level that applies pressure on the atomic structure allowing containment of atmospheres of planets and stars to be held by gravity, this is the differential. This is a universal balance, how would you account for the gas nebula, does its gravitational field counter a vacuum? There is a underlying force related to dark matter (the term Dark Matter is introduced to explain that which is unseen and yet unmeasured with a real quantity of mass). This is the medium that controls the vibration, expansion, compression and velocity rates of all particles in this seen or unseen universe. The conclusion mankind has made, is that outer space consists of a vast void and it is this concept, that will be modified.

Space is filled with the basic subatomic particles or the building blocks for elemental matter, the proton, electron, neutron and there various assumed subcomponents. This medium allows penetration of light since the photon also is also a subatomic particle as the normal definition of matter is not formed. Gravity, a subatomic particle in itself at this level exists as another subatomic particle. What these subatomic particles provide as they vibrate is a force when there equilibrium is disturbed.

Vibration on the subatomic level for this universal density field is basically the maximum average lateral particle movement in an X-Y plane perpendicular to the axis of direction of the sub atomic particle the Z axis where push back oscillation occurs due to crowding. Velocity of the subatomic particle is not a factor. It is the press from other subatomic particles in the void of space that limit the amplitude and the natural crowding that limits the subatomic particle velocity. It is this relationship that establishes a perceived maximum velocity and the wave format that uniform particles take during particle movement. This applies to all forms of matter in any universal density field. Now lets examine a few examples.

When a large comic object displaces a significant volume of space, several factors take place. The local equilibrium is altered, as the volume displacement  of the cosmic object pushes back at the subatomic particle field surrounding it, this local compression now projects a containment force around the cosmic object. The larger the displacement, the larger the force. It is now that gravity coupled with an atmospheric density that allows a counter push back does stability ensue.

So why does a space craft if breached loses its atmosphere? Without significant volume displacement and artificial gravity there is no push back to counter the subatomic particle density of space. If the exterior of the spacecraft is breached, there would be a loss of its air to space, due the imbalance.

Now, how do we apply these new concepts this to relativity? If a spacecraft was to achieve .9 of what is considered light speed in this universal density field, when a stream of photons or subatomic particles are introduced from the moving platform in the direction of travel, what would happen? They would immediately encounter a push back trying to transverse the field of subatomic particles (Dark Matter) that are present in space impeding their path, building until the additional speed is in relation to the space craft is dampened. Resulting, in overall sub atomic particle speed reaches the limit C. This is the point where the force pushing back against forward progression of the subatomic particle or photon reaches an equilibrium within the ambient field, the subatomic universal density particle field of known space. Now we consider examples of a moving platform and the emission of light particles emitted to the front and rear of the direction of travel.

To the outside observer viewing the approaching craft, the wavelength of the emanating light would be compressed towards what is consider the blue-ultra violet spectrum. This is due the distribution of the individual particles being placed at .9 of light speed relative to the point of release towards the observer. For the occupant of the space craft, their forward view provides the illusion of time moving at an accelerated rate. As they pass the oncoming universal field of matter and related subatomic particles, its matrix of progression called time proceeds at the combined accelerated speed relative to each other, but neither particle exceeds the speed of C relative frame of reference.

Lets consider a beam of photons released to the rear of the spacecraft platform and what would be their resultant particle movement? Here we have to examine each photon and at its release point. As the spacecraft is moving away at .9 of light speed from the observer, it is the distribution of the photons and the natural wave pattern of emission that is stretched. Once light is introduced to the medium, the same factors of particle crowding through a universal density field would apply. Consequently, limiting the overall speed of the particle to C. The light source, thus exhibits a longer wave length due to the displacement of the light source via the space craft moving away from an observer viewing. This particle behavior is similar to the Doppler effect except light is replaced with sound waves. Additionally, the restrictive medium of the thin subatomic particle field of space is substituted by the atmosphere of Earth and any moving object moving away or towards the observer has an effect on its frequency. The universal laws in nature within this universal plane are consistent.

The mind of man ponders many paradoxes, if so how would a light source projected within a moving space craft cruising above .9 of C react?

Inside a space craft, its shell would isolate the interior particle field from that of outer space and its apparent velocity, thus light or its related subatomic particles would behave in a normal fashion within the interior of the craft as the static field impeding the speed of light would be relative to the platform or in this case the spacecraft.

Summing up as a Review

Light, a collection of many sub atomic particles is affected by the medium it travels through. The vibrational resonant frequency of the atomic structures and all sub atomic particles within this universal density field is dependent upon the compression of dark matter. Due to this, vibrational separation of the sub atomic particle relates to a specific distance to a mass. As a particle is introduced due to energy, the velocity of a particle is limited the dampening pressure created by dark matter. Resulting in any particle passing through this space, conforms to the accepted velocity of light.

Dark matter or the ambient sub atomic universal density field permeates all matter. Consider, if one were on a mass traveling at .5 C pressure waves would already be building on the direction of the mass. What would be the result of turning on a light already on a moving mass at .5 C? The emitted light still would only attain C as the same pressure holding the series of photons in space is present.

Dark matter determines the passage of time

Dark matter a sub atomic particle is the generic blueprint for all matter. Consider it as a substance on the sub atomic level to an organic molecule with no genetic code. The essence of all, but absent of specific properties related to a elemental mass or compound.

The vibrational rate determines separation of the individual sub atomic particles as force including particles related to gravity or magnetism. As a photon passes through what is considered the void of space, dark matter in itself does not cause absorption, deflection or diffusion. The higher the atomic vibrational rate, the greater the separation of particles. As the frequency related to the atomic structure rises in a universal spatial density field, the perception of time changes with a greater separation a pressure wave repulsing a photon takes longer to build in essence dark matter vibrating at higher frequency allows light to travel many times faster in a higher universal plane. Thus the new perception  of  the speed of C, is now a variable, which is dependent upon the vibrational rate of the dark matter. This varies within parallel universes with the field thinning at each new level. Thus the term "density" is use coined to refer to the different levels of parallel universes. Where the vibrational rate of the atomic structure increases so does the ambient sub atomic field of dark matter thus affecting the perception of time. It is the compression and expansion of dark matter that allows density shifting.

The Earth massive in its core slows dark matter and due to the irregularities sometimes funnels these particles in a compressed form as compression increases the sub atomic respond by naturally increasing the vibrational rate once released at specific points of crust weakness (Bermuda Triangle, Great Lakes), expansion joints of connecting plates, the subject mass is bathed in the particles the mass moves permanently or temporarily to the next plane dependent upon absorption.

Time is the natural progression of all particles and their relationship of location to each other, interaction, and result that is interwoven then locked as the cycle completes then repeats, limited by the vibration of subatomic particles within the universal spatial field. On the sentient level thought, action or lack there of to change issues presented to the life form adds to the complexity.

Mankind assumes as an object increases velocity the progression of time slows for the affected mass. If time is manipulated by a particle's velocity, how are the individual  timelines are held? Are they encapsulated from the natural timeline of this universe, and if so, how the interaction of these separate events come together?

So why have some experiments conducted on Earth verified that some slowing has occurred with an increase in speed? Measurement devices made of matter are affected by increased particle flow due to velocity. The effect tends to overwhelm the atomic structure. Increased particle flow dampens a natural resonance of an atom thereby sending a false signal that time is slowing. Does not your own crystal keep time by the resonant frequency of certain minerals? The definition of a resonant frequency of a crystal is atomic vibrational oscillations within a define quantity of matter. Velocity adds particle flow to the matrix, this in turn, slows the overall vibrational rate of the original atomic structure. Hence, reference points slow due to crowding, not the passage of time, a concept which is still little understood.

Now some will say, are we to believe an unknown particles are responsible for the flow of time when few if any are privy its behavior, structure and how it relates to the progression of all interrelated events, referenced as time? Does not increased pressure restrict movements, does not a powerful magnetic field restrict the moment of the needle of a compass, so why would you not think as an object increases in velocity, and the mechanical or crystal vibration would not be altered?

All matter is set to the vibrational rate to the basic the innate sub atomic particle universal field, dark matter, which permeates all. Does the flow of electrons arrive at a target equal to the speed of light in time or slow as proposed thru theories as particles approach the perceived, “event horizon”? When electrons are accelerated from a standstill to the speed of light (electricity) their mass within the copper wire does not increase. Secondary, the passage of time is not altered due the push maximizing at the speed of light.

Adding, what determines a lock point within the concept of time? The timeline of the universe is not altered by the chaotic velocities of random particles, but is an overall synchronization many particle patterns. The interactions and various frequencies finds an equilibrium of interaction between the points, which is defined as a complete time phase. These points are where all time line frequencies share a common node. The key to time travel is to transverse the node. Where all phases of time share a common point and introduction into a different phase can be achieved. For this instant all parallel phases of time lines come together. The process is simple, slow down or increase the natural vibration rate of matter within the localized area of the common node that is all needed to initiate time travel. The vibrational rate of matter is in a direct mathematical relationship with the concept of time. This applies to all of past time and only for the future and up to its accompanying lock points that is yet to occur.

The problem with future time travel is that events diverge due to a primary factor, the "God" aspect, which allows intelligent beings to change the natural progression of events affecting their interaction with the universe with the gift of free intellect and choice. This is why the past can be accessed, because decisions were made. The future is different, if one was to push the time line forward, it would be pushed back due to sentient life choices. Divergence in many different directions may come about. When pushed, it allows a glimpse of the most likely timeline path, but when pushed further, a separation along the time line deviates away from certainty.

There new factors that control the universal velocity of sub atomic particles and light. Mankind picked this medium as base on what seemed that no particle could travel faster, but a few within the universal spatial field or density on some occasions is exceeded. Light, when measured is only a observation of the average of all related particles. The cancellation and reinforcement of the various particles that compose light is perceived as a final wavelength and the average speed yielding a constant velocity of C? Where does mankind go astray with relativity? They assume that the vacuum of space does is empty and does not impede the velocity of a particle.

The Current Accepted Theory:

Reprint

The speed of light c is said to be the speed limit of the universe because nothing can be accelerated to the speed of light with respect to you. A common way of describing this situation is to say that as an object approaches the speed of light, its mass increases and more force must be exerted to produce a given acceleration. There are difficulties with the "changing mass" perspective, and it is generally preferable to say that the relativistic momentum and relativistic energy approach infinity at the speed of light. Since the net applied force is equal to the rate of change of momentum and the work done is equal to the change in energy, it would take an infinite time and an infinite amount of work to accelerate an object to the speed of light. (Sorry, Captain Kirk. We can't give you warp speed!)

A common resistance to the speed limit is to suggest that you just accelerate two different objects to more than half of the speed of light and point them toward each other, giving a relative speed greater than c. But that doesn't work! Time and space are interwoven in such a way that no one observer ever sees another object moving toward them at greater than c. The Einstein velocity addition deals with the transformation of velocities, always yielding a relative velocity less than c. It doesn't agree with your common sense, but it appears to be the way the universe works.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/relativ/ltrans.html

The conservation of mass is a fundamental concept of physics along with the conservation of energy and the conservation of momentum. Within some problem domain, the amount of mass remains constant--mass is neither created nor destroyed.

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/mass.html

So Bhaskara tried to solve the problem by writing n/0 = ∞. At first sight we might be tempted to believe that Bhaskara has it correct, but of course he does not. If this were true then 0 times ∞ must be equal to every number n, so all numbers are equal. The Indian mathematicians could not bring themselves to the point of admitting that one could not divide by zero. Bhaskara did correctly state other properties of zero, however, such as 02 = 0, and √0 = 0.

Lets examine current theories of two objects approaching each other with a combined velocity exceeding the speed of light.

Information Below is provided by the courtesy of: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/relativ/einvel2.html - c2

Georgia State University does not endorse the Grant Chronicles, their information is referenced as current accepted theory.

# Relativistic Projectile

Now if spacecraft A fires a projectile at velocity Vp as measured in A's frame of reference, then the two relevant questions are:

1. How fast will an external observer see the projectile traveling?

2. How fast will B see the projectile approaching?

This is an example of Einstein velocity addition. Taking question #1 first, then in the standard form: Note that for low velocities, this is the simple sum of the velocities of the firing spacecraft and the projectile as seen by that spacecraft.

Now to calculate the approach velocity as seen by the targeted spacecraft B: Georgia State University does not endorse this website, its information is used to provide a basis for some concepts of relativity

For low speeds, this expression yields a value equal to the sum of the magnitudes of the three velocities as indicated in the diagram. The Einstein velocity addition guarantees that the resultant velocity does not exceed c, even if all three of the indicated velocities approach c!  Yes the waves of the two objects relative to each other would shift towards the blue spectrum and the light between the 2 objects would never exceed the speed of light, but the relative distance between the 2 objects would shrink at rate of the combined velocities so it would seem as time accelerated forward, but it is nothing more than a cumulative motion of both objects.

The concept of wormholes as a portal of transportation matter and time intrigues the world of science. Again lets examine the simple aspects of this theory. Light from one side of the portal would be compress then expanded for a view of the area would then exist in two reference points in space, thus the existence of 2 time lines at the source observation point. This is an abomination and cannot exist as the timelines merge creating an interference pattern for the spot of convergence.

It is time for new concepts and ideas to move the world of astrophysics forward that might bridge the gap of theory and the constant evolution of discovery.

E/M = C2