Pulsars

Short Summary

   

   In the year 1967, astronomers discovered an unusual cosmic anomaly, a pulsar. Mankindís analysis of the phenomena has brought forth this explanation of the astronomical event. The origin of this stellar object according to present day theory is believed to originate from a remnant neutron star, or a white dwarf. On occasion a star 4 to 8 times as massive as our Sun explodes, resulting in a super nova. The explosion initiates a blow off of the outer shells of stellar mass, the resultant core left behind cools and collapses under its own intense gravitational field and compression of stellar matter occurs.

   The stellar mass under compression undergoes a dramatic increase in internal angular rotational turmoil in its core as the remnant mass conserves angular momentum and the radius of the former star shrinks. One result is a dense neutron star of a small diameter, usually less than 20 kilometers rotating rapidly. The remnant emerges with the properties within its core that are theoretically absent of internal nuclear reactions, surrounded by a powerful magnetic field and produces a strong source of radio wave emissions. According to mankindís present accepted theory, radio waves are emitted in focused beams exiting through tight channels via the north and south magnetic poles of the neutron star.

   This theory, named ďThe Lighthouse EffectĒ by astrophysicists, proposes that the magnetic pole alignment is tilted in relation to the rotational axis of the neutron star. The effect is a tight radio wave beam emitted from the poles, which sweeps rotationally across the universe like a lighthouse beacon. The Earth then receives the subtle pulses of radio waves at a frequency directly related to the rotation period of the remnant creating a pulsar effect. On occasion, scientists have detected variances in the arrival times of pulse produced from some pulsars, as its position in relation to the Earth changes. Consensus thinking has added modifications to this theory to account for these phenomena. Differences in the spatial location of the star are due to gravitational forces from the planetary companions applied at the extremes of their elliptical orbits.

   The theoretical concept proposed above by mankind does not consider all aspects of the muted fusion process, which initiated stellar collapse and the resultant blow-off of the outer layers. Lets examine the steps a stellar mass goes through that results in a supernova.  As a stellar mass evolves, its primary fuel, hydrogen, eventually dwindles and the creation of heavy elements crowd the core increasing dampening factor affecting the fusion process. The fusion reaction occurring in the core no longer produces sufficient molecular activity and heat particle emissions needed to counteract the incoming gravitational subatomic particle flow drawn to its core. The imbalance of the sustained incoming flow countered by a diminishing outward force results is a stellar mass collapse, compressing all matter within the original star, into a spherical object that is a fractional size of its original volume.

   As the star collapses, conservation of rotational angular momentum occurs, and the rate of spin increases in proportion to the compression in reduction magnitude of the radius of the affected mass. On a rare occasion, a super nova occurs as a large pocket of unused hydrogen fuel enters into an active zone within the core. So how does this happen if the star collapsed due to a dying reaction within its core?

   It is the heavy elements that usually gather in the central region of the star as the ash of the fusion reaction and when sufficient amounts coalesce within the core of a stellar mass it chokes off this process, normally the heavy elements would be a control factor within a star, limiting the reaction rate to a slow burn versus an explosion. When the by-product of the fusion process heavy elements chokes the core, the fusion process is inhibited within the stellar mass. Energy production is shunted and the stellar mass cools and contracts, the force of compression accelerates rotational spin about the axis as its momentum is conserved. It is the increased spin that affects the presently dormant core.

   In your early lab days, what happens to general mixed mass of light and heavy elements similar to what is within the core when subjected to an increased rotational rate? Einstein taught you to look towards nature for solutions related to the Universe, but few are listening. The core behaves as a centrifuge as the rate of rotation increases the heavy elements shift to the outside leaving the lighter hydrogen helium core to pool in the center. The key is the stellar compression rate. Factors needed is a  stellar mass with a large radius, residual latent heat and low rotational spin about its axis. If these parameters are in place where there is hydrogen in the area just outside of the compression core, the increased rotational spin bleeds the lighter elements towards the central core. In conjunction with a time period needed to allow sufficient light elements to gather, thus lowering the ratio of heavy elements to light,  when gravitational compression initiates a secondary fusion reaction of all matter within the zone at once. The gravitational containment force of the stellar mass can no longer hold the nuclear forces at bay. A cosmic explosion or super nova ensues, tearing away a significant portion of the stars mass, thus leaving only a fractional remnant of mass, when it cools, creates a neutron star.

   Physicists have proposed that the electromagnetic emission beacon is responsible for the pulses, are focused during their passage through strong magnetic fields occurring at the poles of the stellar remnant. Over the vast distances of interstellar space, subtle details in radio wave reception exhibited by Pulsars would not back todayís theories. Radio waves exiting from the polar regions of a cosmic mass would spread immediately once outside of the influence of the pulsarís magnetic field in a 180 degree, 3 dimensional spherical direction. Would a transmitter here on Earth create the signature of a pulse in relation to its rotation speed and tilt to a stationary axis once outside of the point of containment; or does the source of the radio waves expanding from that point appear as a steady state emission with small short dips over a long distance? The tilt of the magnetic poles in relation to the poles of the rotational axis of cosmic objects seldom varies by several degrees. Observations the Crab Nebula pulsar have shown jets that do not rotate and a pressure waves expanding in concentric expanding circles, which occurs from a spherical burst. There is nothing true about current theories of a pulsar as an examination of the Crab Nebula pulsar proves.

Stellar Rotation 

   The movement of matter within its core dictates the rotation of cosmic objects. The process of how movement in the core of a cosmic object is responsible for its rotation is sketchy at best to Earthís scientists. The core primarily in a liquid state, a zone where the heavy elements accumulate, is highly susceptible to viscosity of the flowing matter in the core and the ambient magnetic field, primary due to the elements of iron and nickel. The proportion of iron and or nickel in relation to other heavy elements in the core is the determining factor to the intensity of a magnetic field of a cosmic object. Matter, planetary or stellar in origin, aligns in a north-south block-like relationship to the ambient charged field of the dominant cosmic object within the local stellar to galactic region.

   The flow of the matter within the core is started by pressure and gravitational inequalities within different zones of the core. Molecular motion organizes and begins to move due to attraction in a uniform fashion, momentum tends tends to carry past the point of equilibrium as it overshoots drifting until attracted again. Velocity of this motion or period of core rotation is dictated by a differentiation of pressure inequalities that exist in the core and the gravitational forces tugging from outside cosmic objects. Motion truly is initiated in a straight direction, but gravity tends to bend that path of motion towards the center of the core. The result is circular motion, as matter in the core takes the easiest path, perpendicular to the alignment of the magnetic poles unless altered by an outside magnetic influence.

   If a scientist could examine the objectís process pertaining to movement of matter in the core at the molecular level, it would be represented by what seems to be an infinite number of ultra thin parallel disks of matter floating on top of each other. All movement is synchronized in the same direction about the axis of the cosmic mass. The rotational speed differentials of the many parallel levels of stacked matter tend to reinforce each other. This movement process tends to slide past each other with minimal interference, thus building rotational momentum in a give and take progression. Minimizing the frictional build up of heat, which translates into a loss of rotational momentum in the core.

   The motion within the core is the driving force of stellar rotation, accomplished as the surface matter or outer shell of the cosmic object is dragged from frictional contact from the spinning motion of its central mass. As the angle of a surface point on the mass in relation the rotation plane and a shared point that intersects the axis increases, the efficiency of rotational spin of mass at that point and the energy transferred from the core erodes. This is the process that propels the rotational spin of planetary and stellar objects, not inherited rotation due to conservation of rotation torque as the radius about the spinning decreases.

Millisecond Pulsar Theory  

   Mankind has proposed there the variations in the arrival or delay of these pulses from these stars are attributed to gravity from companion objects? This is false, a supernova explosion, the current theory backed by most scientists, would have eliminated the local spatial area of any cosmic objects due to the initial blast wave. If a large remnant extra solar mass did survive the push only to be attracted back into the local area, capture or assimilation of the object would occur from the immense gravitational force exerted by the core of the remnant star, white dwarf or the formation of binary rotation of the 2 stellar objects.

   The millisecond pulsar theory proposed by mankind, explains how a neutron star void of any fusion reactions acquires through accretion stellar mass from a companion binary star. The result is an increase of rotational velocity and the period is reduced to fewer than twenty-five milliseconds. Lets analyze this scenario under the present rules of astrophysics.

   A neutron star occurs when fusion reactions in the core of a remnant star stops. No longer is there a force of nuclear reactions, which expands the mass, available to counter the compression of gravity. So the star collapses, creating a dense dead stellar mass of neutrons, a fraction of its original spherical volume, while simultaneously preserving angular momentum. Hence, rotational speed increases in proportion to the reduction in the radius of the mass.

   Enter into the equation the accretion disk, which feeds off of a companion star. As new mass is added to a remnant mass already in a state of equilibrium, a point where conservation of angular momentum balances rotational speed and the size of the stellar mass under gravitational compression, any addition would tend to slow rather than increase the speed of rotation. Impact collisions occurring from the captured mass of the accretion disk when added neutron star, would result in heat. Once added, an expansion of the cosmic mass in volume would occur and the moment of inertia diminishes. Rotation would slow. To state that accretion of new material from a companion stellar mass to a neutron star or remnant increases the rate of rotation is a direct violation of mankindís laws of motion.

  Secondary, the neutron star is the remnant of a supernova, hence no companion star. Also consider if the companion star did survive, why does the intense neutron star gravitational flow grab only surface matter instead of attract the whole stellar mass, since gravitational laws of mankind state the force is across the entire stellar mass?

The Stellar Mechanics of a Pulsar

   A pulsar is one of many events  that occurs in the universe after a catastrophic loss of fusion energy production within the core of the star, but in the unique cases where it does result, the process to its creation could take one of two paths. The first path that could lead to a pulsar is a super nova and the creation of a remnant neutron star. The second path is when rate of the fusion process occurring in the core decreases to the point where the stellar mass collapses upon itself creating a white dwarf without an explosion. Although the formation of a stellar remnant may takes different paths, they create a similar condition, where a energy subatomic particle emission cycle would be emitted from a compressed stellar mass in this universe,  as a relative stable periodic pulse.

Super Nova Path

   The first path is a stellar mass nearing the end of hydrogen fuel supply availability within the zone compression, which is responsible for the fusion process. No longer is the stellar core able to produce enough energy to counter the gravitational subatomic particle  incoming flow and surface mass compressing the core. The sequence of events initiated by the newly created heavy elements shunts the fusion process causing an increasing and alternating cycles of compression and expansion of the core  as a series of ebbing peaks. Until an irreversible process caused by gravitational flows passes a point where a bounce back does not occur, thus the stellar mass collapses. Over time as the moment of rotational torque increases due to the reduction of the radius of the stellar mass, centrifugal force separated light from heavy elements just outside of the zone of fusion compression. This constant cycle starts a process expansion and compression as small new sources of hydrogen pockets was converted to new elements and energy when caught inside of the perimeter for fusion to occur during the collapsing process. After many cycles a large pooled source of hydrogen missing the the controls of the fusion process, as the heavy elements drifted outward due centrifugal force moved away from the core. With the controls missing the fusion moves from the slow burn to an explosion, thus the super nova.

   In a rare occurrence when a super nova results most of the stellar mass is blown away. Leaving a dense dead like stellar core, when exposed to the low density interstellar medium expands, thus shutting down any random pockets of fusion as all areas of compression tends to equalize. With the larger stellar surface area heat is dispersed quickly and the mass shrinks. The reduction of the radius causes 2 primary changes to the remnant stellar mass, an increased moment of rotational torque and movement of the heavy elements from the central core to what would be the inside the lower convection zone due to centrifugal force.

   As the remnant shrinks to the concept of a neutron star changes from current theory. All matter and the various related subatomic particles that were a part of the original stellar mass still are still present, but in a greater proportion as the lighter element shell was shed. 

   At a pulsarís inception, hydrogen accumulates in the center of the remnant (remnant will used as the a definition of a compressed stellar remnant, which is composed subatomic particles related to protons, neutrons and electrons instead of just neutral charged particles in order to explain the extreme gravitational compression due to mass that does not repel). Although particle crowding was never considered. The shrinkage of the remnant mass proceeds until gravitational compression initiates a restricted fusion reaction within a new defined core, smaller and fractional in comparison to its pre-nova rate.

   This sets into motion a domino effect related to the new core and the changes affecting the now active compressed stellar mass. The extreme rotational torque sets up a path of least resistance for ejected mass from the core as the heavy elements spin away from the axis. Once gravitational compression increases to a point where fusion occurs, it is a burst as all available hydrogen in the immediately created small compression zone interacts without the restriction heavy element shunts. Energy jets out along the axis of rotation as mass and a pulse is emitted about the spherical surface. Reduced molecular motion in the central area of the stellar mass, translates into less heat, light and molecular frictional motion. The energy burst expands the core and critical fusion compression zone dissipates, gravitational compression counters expansion as energy pulse and heat transfers to the stellar shell spherical. Centrifugal force moves the newly created heavier elements immediately away from axis of spin and hydrogen pools. Compression occurs again as the core sheds heat as the star shrinks. The critical fusion reaction forms and the energy burst occurs again. Once stabilized, the remnant object proceeds to oscillate under cycles of expansion from new unused hydrogen energy sources and increasing waves of compression due to energy production constriction, thus the pulsar. As the pulsar fuel is used the period between burst increases until ultimately a point is reached where the pulse seems to cease.

   Under increased gravitational compression, the core gives rise to a new set of particles when resident heat particles drop from an excited stage to normal and radiate outward causing a disruption of the magnetic flow. The build up and emission burst of some of these particles are emitted within the frequency range of radio waves and is projected throughout the universe. The pulse is created, as radio particles build inside the gravitational shell until the force of the applied by radio emission particles against the shell overcomes spherical containment. At this point a burst of radio particles occurs, which mankind records on his instruments as a pulse flowing in a wave format. Internal pressures near the containment shell drop within the solar mass and the cycle repeats as radio particles are created in the core.

  Variations, like rapid pulse rates, sometimes measured in milliseconds, occurs when a weak gravitational field emanating from a stellar object is overwhelmed by an accelerated over production of radio noise particles. The equilibrium within a pulsar, which emits the pulse or burst, radio noise production moves from ebb to a zenith, as compromise between production and build up of particles against the force of the gravitational containment field of the cosmic object. The weaker the gravitational containment field or the greater the fusion rate affecting molecule bumping, the shorter the time period is between a pulse.

   An opposite reaction, an increase in the time period between pulses happen as the stellar object gathers mass from the gravitational active zone of assimilation or fusion energy production with the star ebbs, the rate of the radio wave pulsation decreases as witnessed by stellar observations of astronomers. A stronger gravitational field retains particles for a longer rate before a burst occurs. A lower fusion energy rate, which occurs in the core, decelerates the molecular bumping frictional production process, resulting in a lower emission of radio waves. Also accounting for a slower energy burst. Once the two processes of an increased gravitational containment shell and decreased molecular motion occur to a stellar object simultaneously, there is an exponential decrease in the pulse rate emanating from that object.

White Dwarf Path

   An examination of the second path is where the rate of the fusion process no longer counters the force of incoming gravitational particle flows and the mass of the star collapses. The process of increasing centrifugal force clearing the core is is cycling of ebbing fusion reactions without invoking any catastrophic explosion where oscillation of the surface shell eventually shrinks to a white dwarf. Thus forming a dense, rapidly rotating cosmic object (conservation of inertial momentum), which is a fractional size of the original diameter of the cosmic object.

   What is yet to be discovered by scientists is that the fusion process never stops in a stellar object as long as gravitational compression provides the environment for the fusion process to occur. Energy production eventually is reduced to the point where it approaches null activity, but never gets there. An absolute stoppage of the fusion process, mankindís version of the fusion process is only a theoretical assumption without merit, similar to your belief in absolute zero and that all motion ceases. There is no minimum temperature in the universe only a point that can be approached but is never attained.

   A true representation is a slow erosion of the fusion reaction, but it does not default to an absence of all energy production. Variations on previous explanation differ only with the location where the pulse is emitted. The pulse essentially is released from the stellar object in a 360-degree spherical pattern. In this alternate second case, angular velocity is transferred to radio noise emission particles due to rotation of the pulsar, adding a new factor into this phenomenon. Ejection of these particles, are accelerated due to centrifugal force. The maximum expulsion rate of particles from the pulsar occurs at the equator with leakage happening between pulses. Diminishing quickly as the latitude of the particles in relation to their ejection point on the globe increases from the equator towards its poles. Established physicists need to ponder this galactic event  from a fresh perspective, with no preconceived concepts. To scrutinize this cosmic event, the pulsar for explanation, I will set stable parameters of mass, rotation, fusion energy production in the core to arrive at a logical conclusion.

 Abstract Version 

   In abstract, a pulsar, with a total mass of M, radius R and a rotational period of X, would produce a constant gravitational static containment shell at the outer edge of its body for random moving matter and energy. Yielding a containment force of Y, applied opposite the direction of any random molecular or energy particles trying to exit the core. The fusion rate of the remnant hydrogen pockets left over from the original stellar mass in the core of the pulsar for this example will also remain at a constant is in order to maintain a stable periodic pulse of radio particles moving in a wave format. The information concerning the process of a fusion reaction is still active in a neutron star, white dwarf or stellar remnant of a supernova, would be a surprise in the prestigious circles of elite astrophysicists. Since they believe the fusion reaction in a pulsar stellar object has ceased.

   Progressing, the by-product of stellar molecular bumping or frictional motion within the core of the pulsar is radio noise particles, which are emitted at constant rate Z for the hypnosis. Our examination of the pulsar phenomena, will look at all aspects that interact within the remnant stellar mass. As radio particles are produced within the core of the mass of the pulsar, movement exiting this central location occurs in a 360-degree spherical dispersion from the crowded conditions. The particles build and apply an opposing force, which increases in proportion to the passage of time and the rate of particle emissions, designated as Z, against the force Y of the containment shell. Due to the rapid rotation the stellar mass, an unequal centrifugal force is applied to mass and particles generated within the stellar remnant. Centrifugal force, which adds to the momentum of exiting particles, is determined by a particleís distance away from the axis and the cosine of the angle between the equatorial plane and the radioís particle path exiting the stellar mass. It is created from angular rotational momentum, which is greatest at the equator of the cosmic object, perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Here is where mankind has to re-examine his assumed location dictating the path of least resistance, only because observations of a pulsar are deceptive.

   To perceive a new version, which unfolds in a logical sequence of events, we will explore the activity of particle movement within the remnant sphere of a pulsar. Due to the principles of known fluid mechanics, the contents of the compressed core within a sphere consisting of remnant stellar mass, representing a pulsar moves slower than a normal stellar object. Particles building along the equatorial plane, confronts the spatial location internal surface tension of the pulsarís gravitational containment field, leak due to centrifugal force occur. Ejection from the stellar mass creates pressure waves in front of movement as they exit and leave a vacuum in its wake along the polar rotational axis. Particle movement piercing the containment shell varies due to angular momentum, greatest at the equator and diminishes as the path of particles exiting the sphere parallels the poles. This sequence of events, causing an applied force from particle buildup against the containment field, is an opposite of conventional thinking. The maximum amount of particles would leave at or near the equator, leaving a low-pressure wake upon exit. At the poles, particle movement pressure would build and maximize against the shell, due to low or no added exiting momentum from centrifugal force. Like a volcano, where a larger pressure is applied upon a location, which cannot be dispersed quickly due slow movement of mass, the break occurs at the weak point in the form of stellar ejection jets observed in some pulsars.

   In a pulsar, there would be a steady loss in the force applied to the gravitational static shell as the latitude of the particles in relation to its equator leaving the sphere, increases towards the maximum located at the poles. The expulsion point of the pulse of radio particles, initiates at the weakest point. Once the shell is broken, the particles are emitted until the pressure pushing them out are again contained by the incoming gravitational sub atomic particle flow. The process then repeats in frequency according to a new set of variables or constants related to the fusion rate and gravitational subatomic particle inflows. 

All Rights Reserved: © Copyright 2000, 2009 

 

Return to Title Page