The Hubble Constant


Red Shift




   In 1929 Edwin Hubble came to the conclusion that the universe was expanding. He proposed, the acceleration of a galaxy in recession is proportional to its distance way from Earth. This gave way for astronomers to express a constant in units of kilometers per second divided by a mega-parsec or about 3million light years, which is called the Hubble Constant. This constant has been under constant controversy among present astronomers and disputed to be between 50 and 100, which approximates the age of the universe somewhere between 8 and 16 billion years.

  The debate about the Hubble constant will quickly fade as the next generation telescope comes on line. Peering beyond that which mankind has observed. They will be surprised to see more galaxies than can be counted in an area that is supposed to be near the beginning of time, but still offering an element of doubt as the galaxies even further away emitting in the visible light spectrum will be shifted even more towards the red end. The formation and clumping of the galaxies and the age of stellar objects will not be explained as they transcend the estimated occurrence of the Big Bang. At this time, astronomers will try to rework their theories to fit what they have observed, but this time will they arrive at the correct conclusion?

 The Red Shift of light emanating from galaxies that mankind observes, as movement away from a theoretical Big Bang is incomplete, because they have not analyzed the total picture. Hubble used this measurement of a shift in the spectrum towards the red end of light from observed cosmic objects to validate an expanding universe, based on the Doppler effect of established frequencies moving away or towards a static point on Earth. As the frequency of established patterns of emitted light are stretched or compressed a corresponding shift results in the spectrum of light observed dependent upon motion the object being viewed.  In this case we are examining the red shift of standard patterns of spectrum analysis. The occurrence of this red shift is valid, but its cause in the great majority of observed events is not related to acceleration of distant objects away from the point of observation. 

   The clue is that any point with the same extreme distance from Earth has the same red shift, how can this be unless you are stating Earth is the point of origin for the big bang with a uniform velocity of all objects moving away in any observed direction. But again, this cannot be true? Current theories related to the Big Bang propose, how the universe  initialized and expanded different points where there was no clear defined center.

   Hubble using current technology of his time arrived at a common sense conclusion, as acceleration of an object away from the point of observation was the only solution known at that time that would explain the red shift. Today with advancements in how a gravitational particle behaves, interacts with a stream of photons and ultimately affects the subatomic particle movement, thus its frequency we can come to a new conclusion.

  The exception, cosmic explosions, which will create dual red and blue shifted light emissions from the same locality and this will be the indication for the phenomena, due to the acceleration of matter in all directions about the point of dispersion. But overall, it is the interaction of the stream of photons from the source of emission and exposure to a strong gravitational subatomic particle fields over extreme distances, which the effect the frequencies of light. Ultimately, this is the cause of the red shift. Now, why does this occur and is this a phenomena that can be seen on Earth from an unrelated observation that does not include the galaxies on our edge of observation? The answer is yes.  

   Lets examine a single stream of subatomic particles related to light (mankind's definition photons)  as it streams from a source on the edge of known space towards Earth. As light passes through the intergalactic medium, it's path and photon particle flow is affected by the natural gravity subatomic particle field when penetrating or skimming by the many galaxies as the light source approaches Earth. A gravitational field has the intensity to provide an influx of sub atomic particles that affects photon distribution on the sub atomic level.

   The affect occurs as a stream of photons pass through a gravitational subatomic particles particle field, there is an attempt to seek an equilibrium from the applied crowded state of shared spatial field of photons and gravity particles.  The sub atomic particle flow related to photons results in spreading as a response to crowding in the general area, thus a subtle spread of the cross sectional area. Even though exposure the gravitational fields for a streaming this is a random event over vast distances there is a stable relationship as the degree of red shift as a function of distance from the source of light. If this interaction of gravitational fields and a stream of photons is true, what evidence can be presented to back this new concept?

   We will  look at how a stream of photons moving in a wave like format remains largely unaffected in the image and the frequencies of the light until acted upon by a force. The force, will be a gravitational field near the surface of a cosmic object which interacts on a subatomic particle level changing the flow, dispersion and frequency of the original stream of sub atomic particles emitted from the source. Before starting 2 prerequisites need to be reviewed, first basics in particle movement and the how the gravity subatomic particle affects another subatomic particle.

   There is a basic example of how gravity subatomic particles affect the path of a light photon subatomic particles, which can be observed on Earth during dawn and dusk. If so, what example can we look for and what is the process responsible for stretching the frequency of emitted light or a red shift?

   Gravitational subatomic particles returning to a mass can affect natural particle movement within its field, when there is sufficient mass as exhibited by a mass of the Earth. The greatest opportunity occurs when a emitted source of light, in this example will be represented by the Sun.  As a source of light, the optimal path for the rays of light is one that moving somewhat parallel and just above the surface of the Earth, where the gravitational field maximizes the effect.

   The interaction between gravity subatomic particles returning to a mass and a passing stream of photons, (in this example, the Earth is the mass and the light related to the image of the Sun the photons) is different than when a gravity particle passes through a mass, thus applying a force in the direction of movement. It is crowding that results and it is this subtle deflection that affects the stream of particles moving across the field of incoming gravity particles. Lets examine a cross sectional plane containing the x-y axis of the stream of photon while 90 degrees to the z axis. The normal cross sectional plane exhibits standard separation between streams of photon and frequencies of light as when emitted. As the influence of gravity subatomic particles increases due to the stream directional movement towards the surface of the Earth what is observed within the cross sectional plane? As the gravitational field increases the subatomic particle separation between the photons are affected seeking equilibrium from the pressure of the gravity subatomic particles they tend to spread. It is this spreading that is responsible for the larger image and the shift towards a longer wavelength. The interaction of subatomic particles do affect each other yet do not mix in most cases. The first effect is deflection away from the axis of direction, thus expansion of the original incoming photon stream field. Definition: [axis of direction, as subatomic particle moves, there is basic motion about the x, y, z axis. The particle vibrates back and forth, limited by pressures that reverses the field of direction along all 360 degrees of the extremities 2 of the axis, the axis of direction usually assigned to z axis designates forward motion which is an equilibrium between the forward motion of the particles and the field it transverses]. This deflection away from the axis due to crowding slows the process of streams of photons natural pattern of crossing back and forth across the z axis thus artificially stretching the wavelength and overall spreading the cross sectional area of the original stream. This is why the Sun when viewed at the horizon, its light is shifted towards red and muted.

   The Moon exhibits the same phenomena, but same process occurs leading to a different result. The Moon and its reflected sunlight does not shift maximizing red-orange, but a soft yellow, why? The reflected light does have a large red component as the Sun, but the affect still expands the size of the object and stretches the off white light frequency to a soft yellow. Expansion of the size of an object is due to the influx of gravity particles into the stream responsible for the image the crowding separates and increases the cross sectional area of the image and slows the frequency. This why as the stream carrying the image moves away from the surface or horizon the color and size of the image returns to normal as a decreasing function of the gravitational field affecting the stream of photons.

   The red shift can be achieved 2 ways by moving the emitting light source away from the observer or introducing a subatomic particle field that also spreads the photons by repulsive crowding, instead of an accelerating velocity away from a static point of emission.

   The universe is in a static condition with the distances between the galaxies in a state of equilibrium. As the force of gravity and the force of repulsion provide a sense of balance with mass on a galactic level of the universe. Movement occurs only within the local region of universe when a galaxy or group of in close proximity is captured by a black hole or released in a big bang. Galaxies, all with black holes occupying their centers rotate at varied velocities, this dependency is responsible for final shapes.

   Also, the initial conclusions of Einstein was correct about the Universe on 2 fronts of research, galaxies within universe are basically in static positions to each other and there is a repulsion force responsible for separation. Why did he abandon these theories, the answer is still with him.

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